The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:
In the periodic table, Carbon is the sixth element; its atomic number is 6; its symbol is ‘C’ and it is a non-metal. The two most popular oxides of carbon are carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
There are four types of carbon compounds. These are:
- Carbohydrates – this is the main source of energy. The structure is 1 atom of carbon: 2 atoms of Hydrogen: 1 atom of Oxygen. Examples of carbs are glucose, galactose, and fructose.
- Lipids – the main function of lipids is to store energy. The structure of lipids contains carbon and hydrogen atoms. Under Lipids, the classifications are – saturated lipids which is the unhealthy version; and, unsaturated lipids which are liquids at room temperature; and, Poly-saturated Lipids which contain more than 1 double bond. Examples of Lipids are Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Waxes, and Steroids.
- Nucleic Acids – the nucleic acids are made up of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and phosphorous. Examples of nucleic acids are DNA and RNA.
- Proteins – the protein atoms are made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. There are three shapes of protein molecules – primary, secondary, and tertiary.
Besides these four types, in carbon compounds, based on the number of bonds that are formed between the carbon atoms, there are two major categories – saturated and unsaturated compounds.
Saturated Carbon Compounds
The carbon atoms are arranged in a ring-like structure. They are linked with one another with single bonds. Examples of such compounds are Alkanes. Ethane is a very common example.
Unsaturated Carbon Compounds
In the atomic structure, the atoms are in a ring shape and attached to each other, using double or triple bonds. Alkenes have two bonds and Alkynes have triple bonds. These two are the most common examples of unsaturated compounds. Ethene is a common name known.
What is catenation?
Catenation is the property because of which the atoms of the element can form covalent bonds with one another due to the formation of a ring of atoms. Carbon is one element that can form single, covalent, and triple bonds.
Not only within its molecular structure, but carbon atoms are also able to form pπ-pπ bonds with atoms of other elements like hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. It is due to its property of catenation, that carbon has various allotropes.
About 0.5% of the entire universe is made up of carbon and its compounds. This goes to show that Carbon is one of the most widely available heavy non-metals.
When we talk of the Blue Planet, our Earth, carbon constitutes about 0.025% of the crust of the Earth. Here it is present in rocks and stones, for example, limestone. Carbon is also present in good quantities in living organisms.
Carbon compounds have three types of existence: Straight chains, branches, and rings.
- In straight chains, the carbon atoms are linked to each other in a straight line. There are no branches in this case. Hydrocarbons are a good example of straight-chain formation.
- Branches, as can be understood from the term, are where the carbon atoms bond with other atoms to form branches. This kind of molecular structure is most visible in compounds that have high molecular weight.
- Rings, as is clear from the name, are where carbon atoms are bonded with one another or with other atoms, in a way that they form rings or cycles. One example is cyclohexane.
There are four types of carbon compounds – Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acids, and Proteins. The other division of these compounds is based on the atomic bonds and there are two divisions – saturated and unsaturated compounds. Examples of carbon compounds are – carbon oxides like CO and CO2; carbonates like CaCO3; carbon sulphides like CS2; oxalates like BaC2O4; and carbon-nitrogen compounds like HCN or Hydrogen Cyanide. As per scientists, more than a million carbon compounds exist in this universe.
Examples of compounds of carbon are – methane CH4, Calcium carbonate or limestone CaCO3, Carbon dioxide or CO2, Carbon monoxide or CO, ethane, Carbon Tetrafluoride CF4, ammonium bicarbonate, Iron pentacarbonyl, carbon disulphide, and Silver oxalate. Diamond is the hardest form of carbon.
The world of carbon and its compounds is diversified and vast. You need to have a thorough understanding of the properties and atomic structures of the element and its compounds. For better understanding and enhanced learning in an animated environment, try MSVgo, an advanced learning app that makes things easy and simple to understand.
- Reflection Of Light
- Refraction Of Light
- Refraction of Light Through A Prism
- Dispersion Of White Light By a Glass Prism
- Electric Current and Circuit
- Electric Potential and Potential Difference
- Ohm’s Law
- Electric Power
- Magnetic Field and Field Lines
- Electric Motor
- Electromagnetic Induction
- Sources Of Energy
- Our Environment
- Management of Natural Resources
- Chemical reactions
- Balanced chemical equation
- Acids, bases and salts
- Preparation of Sodium Hydroxide
- Metals and nonmetals
- Basic metallurgical processes
- Corrosion and its prevention
- Covalent bonding in carbon compounds
- Atomic number
- Metallic and non-metallic properties
- Life Processes
- Heredity and Evolution
- Control and Coordination