The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:
The process of digestion includes the following:
- The small intestine’s circular and longitudinal muscle contraction mixes the food components with enzymes, and moves it along the gut.
- Enzymes digest most macro-molecules in food into monomers in the small intestine.
- The pancreas secretes enzymes into the lumen of the small intestine.
- Villi increases the surface area of epithelium over which absorption is carried out.
- Villi absorb monomers formed by digestion, as well as mineral ions and vitamins.
- Different methods of membrane transport are required to absorb different nutrients.
After the above process is carried out, the process of absorption starts. During the process of absorption, processed food monomers must pass from the lumen into the small digestive tract’s epithelial covering.
- Tight intersections between epithelial cells block any holes between cells—all monomers must cross the layer.
- Different monomers attempt various methods for crossing both the membranes, i.e. apical and basolateral.
We need energy to perform different functions. This energy is generated from the catabolism of different segments of food, e.g., proteins, starches, fats, and so on. Oxygen is needed for catabolic cycles, and carbon dioxide is delivered all the while. So, the body requires a constant trade of gases; oxygen from the climate is taken inside, and carbon dioxide delivered is taken out. This cycle of vaporous exchange is called breathing.
Hormones are the various chemicals present in our body that are responsible for providing chemical control and coordination of the body, which assist in regulating and integrating numerous activities of the human body. These hormones govern the metabolism, development, and growth of our organs, a few cells, and the endocrine glands.
At any given time, your body is performing various functions all at once. Each neuron in your body fires about 200 times per second!! This coordination is controlled by the human brain, which is the processing unit of the human body. And it is supported by the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. A detailed view and explanation of the nervous system are given below for your reference.
The nervous system is divided into three parts:
(i) Central nervous system (CNS):
In all the vertebrates, including humans, CNS is dorsal, hollow, and non-ganglionated; while in invertebrates, when present, it is ventral, solid, and ganglionated.
(ii) Peripheral nervous system (PNS):
It is formed of long, thin, whitish threads called nerves, which extend between CNS and body parts (muscles, glands, and sense organs).
(iii) Autonomic nervous system (ANS):
It is formed of nerve fibres extending up to visceral organs, and controls the body’s involuntary functions like heartbeats, peristalsis, etc.
Locomotion and movement are two essential terms in the study of motion. All living organisms, excluding plants, move from one place to another in search of food, shelter, to escape predators, and various other reasons. Both locomotion and movement are the same terms related to motion, but are different from each other. The difference is covered in detail on the MSVGo website, wherein the concise and clear videos related to the topic are uploaded to provide detailed information.
Each living creature existing on earth removes their body wastes in various manners via excretion. Excretion is an essential cycle in all living creatures, including plants, mammals, winged animals, creepy crawlies, and unicellular living beings.
Body fluids and circulation are related to the aspect of fluid circulation in the body to distribute the variety of substances to different parts of the body. It is more aptly called by another name; that is, the cardiovascular system. It is a system of organs that provides a pathway for the blood to flow and circulate, thereby transporting the nutrients like amino acids and electrolytes to various parts of the body. The cells can feed and keep themselves nourished. The circulatory system present in humans is the heart, blood, red and white blood cells, platelets, and the lymphatic system.
What do you learn in human physiology?
Human Physiology teaches about the myriad functions that are present in the human body.
What is meant by human physiology?
The study of physical functions is called human physiology.
What is the study of human physiology?
Human physiology is made up of various functions such as digestion, absorption, and excretion, and their study entails researching these functions.
What are the types of physiology?
There are various body processes; such as digestion and absorption, breathing and exchange of gases, chemical coordination and integration, neural control and coordination, locomotion and movement, excretory products, and their elimination and body fluids and circulation.
The above topics are discussed briefly, and since these learnings are critical, you can check out videos on the MSVgo app to understand the concept behind them.