The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:
Bacteria are classified as members of the Monera Kingdom.
They have the following significant characteristics:
- Bacteria are small species that can be located nearly anywhere.
- They are prokaryotic and have a cell wall.
- Amino acids and polysaccharides make up the cell shell.
- Bacteria can thrive in both heterotrophic and autotrophic conditions.
- The bacteria that reside in heterotrophic ecosystems may be parasitic or saprophytic.
- Chemosynthetic or photosynthetic autotrophic bacteria are both possible.
Algae, amoebas, euglena, paramecia are classified as members of the Protista kingdom.
The following are some of the most significant characteristics of Protista:
- They are eukaryotic and unicellular creatures.
- For mobility, some of them have cilia or flagella.
- Cell fusion and zygote development are used in sexual reproduction.
Moulds, mushrooms, yeast, and other fungi are also members of the Fungi kingdom. They have a broad number of uses in both domestic and industrial environments.
- The spores, with the exception of yeast, are filamentous (single-celled).
- Hyphae are slender, long thread-like structures that make up their figure.
- Mycelium refers to the network of hyphae.
- Unbroken channels jam-packed with multinucleated cytoplasm make up some of the hyphae. Coenocytic hyphae are the names given to certain hyphae.
- The other kind of hyphae has septae or cross-walls.
- Polysaccharides and chitin make up the cell wall of fungi.
- The majority of the fungi are heterotrophic saprophytes.
- Any fungi live as symbionts with other species. Any of them are parasitic. Any symbiont fungi, such as lichens, survive in contact with algae. As mycorrhiza, certain symbiont fungi exist in contact with the roots of higher plants.
- Both eukaryotes with chloroplasts belong to the kingdom Plantae.
- The majority of them are autotrophic, although some are still heterotrophic.
- Cellulose makes up most of the cell wall.
- Plants go through two stages in their life cycle. These processes are in a back-and-forth relationship. The saprophytic phase is diploid, while the gametophytic phase is haploid. The lengths of the diploid and haploid phases differ between different plant species. This process is known as the alternation of generation.
- This kingdom includes all heterotrophic multicellular eukaryotes that lack a cell wall.
- Plants provide food to livestock, either directly or indirectly. Their feeding style is holozoic. The holozoic diet entails ingesting food and only digesting it with the help of an internal cavity.
- Many of the species are capable of moving.
- They replicate by sexual reproduction.
Vertebrates are creatures with a vertebral column and/or a notochord at some time during their existence.
A vertebrate is an animal that, at some stage in its life, exhibits any of the following characteristics:
- The vertebral column and/or the notochord are two rigid rods that extend the animal’s length.
- As a fetus, humans and all other vertebrates have a notochord, which grows into the vertebral column.
- The alimentary canal is situated underneath the vertebral column (spinal cord), and a bundle of nerves extends above it.
- The mouth of the animal can be found in the front or just below it.
- The anus, which opens to the outside, is where the alimentary canal stops. After the anus, the tail extends.
Invertebrates are species that lack a vertebral column, which is derived from the notochord. Apart from the Vertebrata subphylum, all species fall under this category.
Animals without a backbone are known as invertebrates. Of the approximate 15-30 million animal organisms, invertebrates account for more than 90% of the number. Invertebrates can be found almost everywhere. They have been discovered in the driest of deserts, the upper atmosphere, and the canopy of the wettest rainforests. They can also be found in the frozen Antarctic or under the ocean’s lowest depths.
Let’s learn about the traits of invertebrates now that you know what they are.
- Invertebrates don’t have a spinal cord or a vertebral column; instead, they have an exoskeleton that protects their whole body.
- These are typically small and do not expand to be very large.
- They don’t have lungs, and they breathe through their clothes.
- Invertebrates are heterotrophic and cannot grow their own food.
- Fission of gametes happens during reproduction.
In this chapter, we learned about the classification of kingdoms. We studied the characteristics of each kingdom, as well.
- What is the concept of classification?
The arrangement of plants and animals in taxonomic classes based on observed similarities and variations is known as classification.
- What is kingdom classification? And how does it work?
In taxonomy, kingdom classification is the highest degree of classification into which species are categorised. It has a higher rank than the phylum.
- What is the classification of the two kingdoms?
Carolus Linnaeus suggested the two-kingdom grouping. He listed living species based on their diet and mobility. Kingdom Plantae and Kingdom Animalia were used to categorise living beings.
- What is the reason for the five-kingdom grouping of living organisms?
Based on features such as cell arrangement, mode of feeding, mode of reproduction, and body organisation, living species are grouped into five kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia, and Monera.
- What is the fundamental classification unit?
The fundamental unit of classification is the species. Organisms belonging to the same family have similar traits and will breed with each other to create fertile offspring.