##### Chapter 2

## Ratio and Proportion

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

#### Introduction

The unitary method is a method for determining a single unit’s value from the value of multiple units and multiple units from a single unit’s value. It’s a tool that we use for the majority of math equations. You will use this approach to solve questions regarding ratio and proportion, arithmetic, geometry, and other topics.

We will find the missing value using the unitary form. For example, if one packet of juice costs Rs. 5, how much do five such packets cost? The expense of 5 packages, i.e., Rs. 25, will then be quickly determined.

Speed = Distance/Time

This shows how rapidly or slowly, an entity travels. It is described as the distance travelled separated by the time it took to travel that distance.

Since speed is directly proportional to distance and inversely proportional to time,

Distance = Speed x Time and

Time = Distance / Speed, as speed rises, time is taken decreases and vice versa.

A per cent is a unit of calculation used to express the association between two sets of numbers. It is calculated by averaging the rate of a shift by the current value, multiplying the result by 100, and applying a percentage symbol.

A percentage point is calculated by subtracting old data from new data. For example, if 40% of adults smoked cigarettes in 2004 and 60% of adults smoked cigarettes in 2014, the per cent difference could be determined by subtracting 40% from 60%, producing 20%.

Simple interest is a quick way to figure out how much money you owe on loan. Simple interest is a term utilised in a variety of industries, including insurance, investment, and automobiles. When you make a debt payment, the monthly interest is withdrawn first, and the balance is added to the principal.

The way of measuring interest for a given principal sum of money is known as simple interest (S.I).

The profit and loss model is a statistical formula used to calculate the selling price of a product and to determine how successful a company is. There is a cost price and a sale price for a commodity. We may measure the benefit or loss produced on a given commodity depending on the values of these costs. Cost price, constant, variable, and semi-variable cost, sale price, marked price, list price, margin, and so on are all relevant words discussed here.

- Profit (P)

The profit made when a good is sold for more than its purchase price. - Loss (L)

A loss is a value a vendor loses by selling a good for less than its purchase price.

A fraction is a collection of equivalent parts or a portion of a larger amount. In other terms, it shows how many bits of a certain scale were used to split the total amount. A numerator and a denominator make up a basic fraction of 1/2. The denominator is written below the line, and the numerator is written above it.

The percentage refers to a percentage or a sum represented as a proportion of a whole number. The percentage symbol per cent is used to represent it.

To transform a fraction to a percent, simply multiply it by 100 and then reduce it to percent. Here are a few illustrations that will help you learn how to transform a fraction into a percentage. Take the measures below to transform a fraction to a percentage:

- Calculate the decimal equivalent of the fraction.
- To get a per cent value, multiply the received decimal number by 100.

In this chapter, we learned about ratio and proportion. We learned about the application of ratio and proportion in concepts like fractions and decimals.

**What is the ratio formula?**

It can be written in two ways: as two equivalent fractions a/b = c/d, or as a:b = c:d, with a colon. “Twenty is to twenty-five as four is to five,” says the following proportion.

**What are the fundamental ratios?**

A ratio is a way of matching two numbers or integers, such as a:b, a to b, or a/b, where b isn’t equal to zero.

**What is the meaning of the term “ratio”?**

The ratio definition helps one to equate two proportions, while the proportion concept is an equation that indicates that two ratios are equal.

**With an example, what is a proportion?**

A proportion is a statement that compares two or more ratios. 2/3 = 4/6 = 6/9, for example.

If a:b::c:d is a ratio, then a/b=c/d and ad=bc.**How do you solve proportions?**

For eg, if 2/3=4/6, 2 x 6 = 3 x 4, = 12 = 12